I don't think any browsers currently support the CSS transform-box property. Firefox has a complete implementation of transform-box but it's hidden behind the svg.transform-box.enabled pref which is off by default. You can enable the pref by typing about:config in the Firefox address bar and then typing in some of the pref text.
Since Chrome's implementation of transform-origin does not match the appropriate specification the Firefox implementors don't know whether the specification will change to match Chrome or whether Chrome will change to match the specification.Once that's decided we'll match whatever the specification says and enable our transform-box code.
As to your paths, I assume one of them is drawn centred on the viewBox centre so that rotates about itself (for that object the viewBox centre and fill-box centre coincide), the others are not drawn at the centre of the viewBox. Of course each path is roughly round so its fill-box centre is the centre of the shape which is why they rotate round their individual origins in Chrome.
The fill-box centre is the centre of the shape's bounding box, the view-box centre is the centre as defined by the viewBox attribute on the nearest ancestor <svg> element.